570 THE IRON INDUSTRY. 3,120,000 tons or over half the output of the Empire. In 1900 it was estimated that the Kertsch peninsula would raise 600,000 tons. The tonnage of wrought-iron and steel in 1899 was twelve times what it was ten years before. In 1888 this district made only 13 per cent, of the pig-iron and 18 per cent, of the steel made in Russia; in 1899 it made over 50 per cent, of both pig-iron and steel. In addition to these products South Eussia turns out 100,000 tons per year of manganese ore, but this is overshadowed by the Caucasus region in the southeast, which furnished one-half of the entire supply of the world. The output of manganese ore from the Caucasus in 1900 was 662,000 tons averaging 53 per cent, of manganese. During that year Eussia exported 440,000 tons. In 1900 there were 17 iron works in South Eussia, the most important being given in Table XXVI-C, the new works in Kertsch not being included. Most of these works own collieries in the Donetz field and ore mines in tie Krivoi Eog district. Table XXVI-C shows that over half the works are in the coal region. TISLE XXVI-C. Principal Iron and Steel Works in South Eussia in 1900, and Annual Production of Iron and Steel. Pig iron ; tons. Finished iron and steel; tons. Number of men employed. Near the Donetz Coal Field : 270,000 153000 8,319* Petrovski Russo-Belgian Met. Co .............. 148,000 107,000 2,689 Donetz-YuriefE Met. Co .... 110,000 32000 3240 Donetz Ironworks and Steel Co ........ .... 95,000 76,000 2,371 Olkovaia Furnaces and "Works Co .................. 80,000 40000 458 3091 Near the Krivoi Rog Ore Field : South Russia Dnieper Met. Co ................... 310,000 170000 6,636 145000 90000 7,174 On the Sea of Azov : Taganrog Met. Co. Nikupol Mariupol Min. and Met Co. ... . ......... 80,000 76000 65,000 23000 3,132 1,619 " Russian Providence ; " Mariupol ................. 70,000 40000 1,841 SEC. XXVIc.—The Urals: The Ural district presents problems of peculiar interest. The ores have long been known and the iron from the beds of Mount * It has been previously stated on the authority of the Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, that the number of workmen in 1899 in all the works of the New Russia Co. was 14,500. It is stated ii} a British Consular Report that the number is 8,319. It is probable that the latter figure omits some of the mines or associated industries.